1. WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
The World Anti-Doping Code (Code) is the first document to harmonise regulations regarding Anti-Doping across all sports and countries. The Code provides a framework for Anti-Doping policies, rules, and regulations for sport organizations and public authorities. As part of an extensive and unprecedented consultation process, WADA solicited comments from its stakeholders throughout the Code’s development incorporating their suggestions into the document. The Code is a living document, and WADA ensures it evolves regularly by engaging in extensive consultation and thorough review of the Code and its associated International Standards on a periodic basis. Amendments to the original Code 2003 was amended in 2009, 2015 and 2021.
In particular, it is due to mention the following important article:
Furthemore, it important to remind all athletes what it is meant by Strict Liability: the rule which provides that, under Article 2.1 and Article 2.2, it is not necessary that intent, fault, negligence, or knowing use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated by the Anti-Doping Organization to establish an anti-doping rule violation.
It is the Athletes’ personal duty to ensure that no Prohibited Substance enters their bodies and that no Prohibited Method is Used. Athletes are responsible for any Prohibited Substance, or its Metabolites or Markers found to be present in their Samples. Accordingly, it is not necessary that intent, Fault, Negligence or knowing Use on the Athlete’s part be demonstrated to establish an anti-doping rule violation. The success or failure of the Use or Attempted Use of a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method is not material. It is sufficient that the Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method was Used or Attempted to be Used for an anti-doping rule violation to be committed.
2. WHAT IS DOPING?
Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations:
1. Presence of Prohibited Substance: Presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s sample
2. Use of Prohibited Substance/Method: Use or attempted use by an athlete of a prohibited substance or method
3. Refusing Sample Collection: Refusing, or failing without compelling justification, to submit to sample collection after notification as authorized in applicable anti-doping rules, or otherwise evading sample collection
4. Failure to File Whereabouts & Missed Tests: Violation of applicable requirements regarding athlete availability for out-of-competition testing, including failure to file required whereabouts information and missed tests (i.e. any combination of three missed tests and/or filing failures within an 18-month period may be deemed a doping violation)
5. Tampering: Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process
6. Possession: Possession of a prohibited substance and prohibited method
7. Trafficking: Trafficking or attempted trafficking in any prohibited substance or method
8. Administration: Administration or attempted administration to an athlete of a prohibited substance and/or method; or assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation or any attempted anti-doping rule violation.
9. Complicity (assisting, encouraging, aiding, abetting, conspiring, covering up or any other type of intentional complicity involving an anti-doping rule violation)
10. Prohibited association
11. Acts by an Athlete or Other Person to Discourage or Retaliate Against Reporting to Authorities
3. WHAT SUBSTANCES AND METHODS ARE BANNED?
The Prohibited List (List) identifies substances and methods prohibited in-competition, at all times (i.e. in- and out-of-competition) and in particular sports. Substances and methods are classified by categories (e.g. steroids, stimulants, masking agents). The List is updated at least annually following an extensive consultation process facilitated by WADA.
It is each athlete’s responsibility to ensure that no prohibited substance enters his/her body and that no prohibited method is used.
The List only contains the generic names of the pharmaceutical substances. The List does not contain brand names of the medications, which vary from country to country. Before taking any medication, an athlete should check with the prescribing physician that it does not contain a prohibited substance:
An athlete will only be allowed to use a prohibited substance for medical reasons if the athlete has a valid Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) for the substance that the ISMF has granted or recognized
Useful Online Databases
The following National Anti-Doping Organizations make online country-specific drug reference databases available for checking the status of a medication bought in that country.
Note: WADA and ISMF do not take responsibility for the information provided on these websites.
What else should athletes know about banned substances and methods?
Athletes should always check with the ISMF to find out what additional substances and methods are prohibited in their sport. Also, athletes should always make their doctor aware that they are bound by the specific rules of their sport. Those who are unsure of what a product contains should not take it until they are sure it is not prohibited. Ignorance is never an excuse.
What should athletes know about using substances?
Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. It is WADA’s position that a good diet is of utmost importance to athletes. The use of dietary supplements by athletes is a concern because, in many countries, the manufacturing and labeling of products may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. A significant number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, and taking a poorly labeled dietary supplement is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.
What about medical conditions?
Athletes, like all others, may at times experience a medical condition that requires them to use particular medicines. The substances that an athlete may be required to take to treat a condition could fall under the List. However, by applying and obtaining a therapeutic use exemption (TUE) from the IF or NADO, an athlete may be allowed to take the necessary medicine. Athletes who need to apply for a TUE should request more information about the TUE application process from their IF (for international-level athletes) or NADO (for national-level athletes).
5. RISK OF SUPPLEMENT USE
Extreme caution is recommended regarding supplement use. A number of positive tests have been attributed to the misuse of supplements, poor labeling or contamination of dietary supplements.
The use of supplements by athletes is a concern because in many countries the manufacturing and labeling of supplements may not follow strict rules, which may lead to a supplement containing an undeclared substance that is prohibited under anti-doping regulations. Pleading that a poorly labeled dietary supplement was taken is not an adequate defense in a doping hearing.
Risks of supplements include:
Athletes should do a risk-benefit assessment if they are considering the use of supplements. The first step of such an assessment is to consider whether a “food-first” approach meets the athlete’s needs. Whenever possible, such assessment should be done with a support of a certified nutritionist or other qualified professional who is familiar with the global and ISMF Anti-Doping Rules.
Checking your supplements
If, after careful consideration, an athlete chooses to use supplements, they must take the necessary steps to minimize the risks associated with supplements. This includes:
Remember, no supplement is 100% risk-free but athletes and athlete support personnel can take certain steps to minimize these risks.
Neither WADA nor the ISMF is involved in any supplement certification process and therefore do not certify or endorse manufacturers or their products. WADA and the ISMF do not control the quality or the claims of the supplements industry.
6. DOPING CONTROLS
The aim of testing is to protect clean athletes through the detection and deterrence of doping.
Any athlete under the testing jurisdiction of the ISMF may be tested at any time, with no advance notice, in- or out-of-competition, and be required to provide a urine, blood sample or blood for a Dried Blood Spot (DBS) analysis.
The 11 steps of the doping control of urine testing procedure
VIDEO: WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY – THE DOPING CONTROL PROCESS FOR ATHLETES
1. ATHLETE SELECTION
Athlete can be selected for doping control at any time and any place.
A Doping Control Officer (DCO) or chaperon will notify the Athlete that he has been selected for doping control. The DCO (Doping Control Offficier) or chaperon will inform the Athlete of his rights and responsibilities. These include the right to have a representative present throughout the process. The Athlete will be asked to sign a form confirming that he has been selected for doping control.
3. REPORTING TO THE DOPING CONTROL STATION
Athlete should report immediately to the doping control station. The DCO or chaperon may allow the Athlete to delay reporting to the station for an activity such as a news conference or to complete a training session. However, once the Athlete has been notified and selected for doping control, the DCO or chaperone will accompany him until the completion of the sample collection process. The DCO may allow a delay in reporting for a valid reason.
4. SELECTION OF A COLLECTION VESSEL
Athlete will be given a choice of individually sealed collection vessels. Athlete may select one. Athlete should verify that the equipment is intact and has not been tampered with. Athlete should, at all times, maintain control of the collection vessel.
5. PROVIDING A SAMPLE
During the sample provision, only the Athlete and the DCO or chaperon of the same gender are permitted in the washroom. The Athlete will be asked to wash hands. The Athlete will then be asked to raise or lower clothing so that the DCO or chaperon has an unobstructed view while the Athlete provides the sample. Athlete and DCO must inspect the equipment and verify the sample code numbers.
6. VOLUME OF URINE
The DCO shall ensure, with the Athlete in full view, that he provided the minimum required volume of 90 mL. If at first the Athlete is unable to provide 90 mL, he will be asked to provide more until that level is met.
7. SELECTION OF SAMPLE COLLECTION KIT
Athlete will be given a choice of individual sealed sample collection kits to choose one. Athlete should verify the equipment is intact and has not been tampered with and open the kit. Confirm the sample code numbers on the bottles, the lids and containers all match.
8. SPLITTING THE SAMPLE
The Athlete will split the sample, pouring at least 30 mL into the B bottle and the remaining urine of 60 ml or more into the A bottle. Athlete will be asked to leave a small amount in the collection vessel. The reason for this is so the DCO can measure its specific gravity. Athlete should pour the urine unless he needs help. In this instance, Athlete will need to provide consent of his representative or the DCO to pour on his behalf.
9. SEALING THE SAMPLES
Next, seal both the A and B bottles. Athlete and the DCO should verify that the bottles are sealed properly.
10. MEASURING SPECIFIC GRAVITY
The DCO is required to measure the sample‚ specific gravity. If it does not meet certain requirements, Athlete will be asked to provide another sample.
11. COMPLETING THE DOPING CONTROL FORM
On this form, Athlete should provide information about any medication, prescription or non-prescription or dietary supplements the Athlete has taken recently. This form is also the place to note any comments Athlete may have regarding any part of the doping control process.
Athlete will be asked for consent that sample could be used anonymously for research once the analysis for doping control purposes is completed. Athlete may say yes or no.
Athlete should be absolutely certain everything is correct, including the sample code number and to be sure, too, that the laboratory copy of the form does not include any information that could identify Athlete.
Athlete will be asked to sign the form.
At the completion of collection, Athlete will receive a copy of the doping control form.
Blood testing procedure
Steps for blood testing procedure is the same as for urine until the point where athlete should check kits for blood doping control. Athletes should choose and inspect the security kits, vacutainer tubes, and accessory kits to ensure they have not been tampered with and are not defective. Security kits contain the security bottles used to transport blood sample to the lab; vacutainer kits include the vacutainer tubes for the collection of blood; and accessory kits contain the butterfly needle, straight needle, and other after-care supplies. Athletes should also check the contents of the security kits to confirm the sample code numbers on the bottles and labels match. Athletes should remove the shrink wrap from the bottles. The lids should be placed on the table with the sanitation cover down. Depending what kind of blood analyses is required, athlete will need to be seated at least 10 minutes before the blood is taken.
BCO will begin the blood collection process by selecting a location on the athlete’s skin from where to draw the blood and cleaning the area with a sterile disinfectant swab. The BCO will apply a tourniquet to aid in the collection, and the BCO will begin to draw the blood sample. A blood draw will be attempted a maximum of three times. The BCO will label each tube with the corresponding sample code number for the security bottles, confirming with the athlete. The DCO will direct the BCO to place the lids on the bottles and twist once. The athlete will then twist the lids on the bottles until secure. The DCO will guide the athlete through the remaining paperwork corresponding to the blood collection session.
The Laboratory process
Athlete samples are packed for shipping by a secure process.
Athlete samples are sent to a WADA-accredited laboratory. When processing samples, that lab will adhere to the International Standard for Laboratories, ensuring the chain of custody is maintained. A sample is analyzed. B sample is securely stored. It may be used to confirm an Adverse Analytical Finding from the A sample. The lab will report the results of the Athlete’s sample analysis to the responsible Anti-Doping Organization and to WADA.
B Sample process
Laboratories analyse samples solely by code numbers, not by athletes names. A laboratory that has analysed an athlete’s A sample reports the results simultaneously to WADA and to the particular Anti-Doping Organization.
Adverse Analytical finding
If an Athlete’s A sample reports a positive result or in the language of the Code, an Adverse Analytical Finding, the organization responsible for results management will conduct an initial review.
That review is focused on two parts:
Athlete will be notified in writing of the results and rights regarding the analysis B sample.
If an Athlete requests a B sample analysis, or if the Anti-Doping Organization requests a B sample analysis, the Athlete may attend or choose to send a representative on his behalf.
In the meantime, a Provisional Suspension must be imposed when an A sample returns an Adverse Analytical Finding due to a Prohibited Method or for a Prohibited Substance other than a Specified Substance. At the same time, the Code grants the Athlete important hearing rights, should the Athlete choose to exercise them, in connection with the imposition of such a suspension. These opportunities can depend on the timing of an individual case.
If the B sample confirms the analysis of the A sample, the Anti-Doping Organization will proceed with the results management process, including the Athlete’s right to a fair hearing.
If the B sample does not confirm the analysis of the A sample, no further action will be taken and any Provisional Suspension will be lifted.
What is ABP – athlete biological passport?
The fundamental principle of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is to monitor selected biological variables over time that indirectly reveal the effects of doping rather than attempting to detect the doping substance or method itself.
More info can be found on WADA website https://www.wada-ama.org/en/resources/world-anti-doping-program/athlete-biological-passport-abp-operating-guidelines
Consequences of Anti-Doping Rule Violations and Doping
An athlete runs very high risks by consuming doping substances or by using prohibited methods. This may result in very severe health but also financial, legal and social consequences. The athletes’ consequences of doping could spell the end of sporting career, reputation, and future prospects both in and out of sport.
An Athlete’s or other Person’s violation of an anti-doping rule may result in one or more of the following:
7. ISMF COMPETITIONS
The ISMF abides by the World Anti-Doping (WADA) standard for testing and testing procedures. Athletes participating in ISMF approved competitions, and other competitions run by ISMF member associations, are responsible for complying with the World Anti-Doping Code (“the Code”) and all relevant International Standards. All athletes have a right to enjoy competitions that are properly organised under rules that aim to ensure fairness while preventing doping.
Member Associations are responsible for complying with the Code and the ISMF Anti-Doping Policy and Procedures. Member Associations will make agreements in writing with athletes that confirm the athletes’ support for the Anti-Doping Policy and Procedure and the other ISMF rules and regulations.
All athletes affiliated with a National Federation shall be subject to in-competition testing by the ISMF, the athlete’s national federation, and any other Anti-Doping Organization responsible for testing at a competition or event in which they participate. All athletes affiliated with a national federation shall also be subject to out-of-competition testing at any time or place, with or without advance notice, by the ISMF, WADA, the athlete’s national federation, the national anti-doping organization of any country where the athlete is present.
What is in-competition testing?
The period commencing at 11:59 p.m. on the day before a Competition in which the Athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such Competition and the Sample collection process related to such Competition. [WADA may approve, for a particular sport, an alternative definition if an International Federation provides a compelling justification that a different definition is necessary for its sport; upon such approval by WADA, the alternative definition shall be followed by all Major Event Organizations for that particular sport.]
Criteria for the selection of athletes is pre-determined, based on the regulations of the relevant IF or event ruling body. Sample collection takes place in accordance with the IST. Athletes are notified of their selection for testing. Samples are analyzed for “in-competition substances” as outlined in the Prohibited List.
What is out-of-competition testing?
Out-of-competition testing, or any testing done outside of an event, ensures that athletes can be tested at any time and at any place.
8. REGISTRED TESTING POOL
In accordance with WADA’s International Standards for Testing & Investigation, the ISMF has created the Registered Testing Pool (RTP). The RTP of highest-priority Athletes established separately at the international level by ISMF and at the national level by NADO, who are subject to focused In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Article 5.6 of the Code and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations (WADA International Standard for Testing and Investigations 2023).
Athletes who are chosen to be in Registered testing pool need to provide whereabouts information. Providing whereabouts is about protecting right to clean sport. Whereabouts information gives the ISMF the ability to locate athletes with no notice. Knowing where athletes can be found for testing is crucial for ensuring effective anti-doping program. Athletes in registered testing pool are asked to provide whereabouts information to ISMF about:
For those athletes included in a RTP, one 60-minute time period a day, where athlete will be available for testing, must also be provided.
WADA’s Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS), is an online tool that athletes can access anytime and anywhere to update their whereabouts information. ADAMS is free, easy to use, and its multi-level access control ensures the privacy and security of information.
How do athletes know they need to provide whereabouts?
Athletes who need to provide whereabouts in ADAMS are notified by the IF/NADO of their inclusion in a testing pool as well as what information exactly is required of them, how to use ADAMS, deadlines to submit this information and any consequences if the information required is not submitted.
What do RTP/TP athletes need to know?
Should athletes have any query on ADAMS, such as how to submit whereabouts, please refer to the ADAMS Help Center.
|Tips for RTP/TP athletes
If you have any anti-doping queries, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.